Uganda - MC Grecof

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Uganda

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Introduction

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Background:

Uganda achieved independence from the UK in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed another 100,000 lives. During the 1990s the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections

Geography

Location:

Eastern Africa, west of Kenya

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m

Koordinaten:

00' N, 32° 00' E.

Map references:

Africa

Geography - note:

Ostafrika, westlich von Kenia

Climate:

varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

People

Population:

23,985,712

Religions:

Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%

Languages:

English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic

Government

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda

Government type:

Republic

Capital:

Kampala

Independence:

9 October 1962 (from UK)

Economy

Economy - overview:

Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. In 1990-2000, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Ongoing Ugandan involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, corruption within the government, and slippage in the government's determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced HIPC debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original Highly Indebted Poor Countries HIPC debt relief add up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001 should be somewhat lower than in 2000, because of a decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export.

Industries:

sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Agriculture - products:

coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry

Currency:

Shilling Ugandan (UGX)

Currency code:

UGX

Coffee


as already explained under activities in "about us" we are heavily engaged in Uganda.
Please see our Mr. Gunsch discussing
with farmers on the Mount Elgon..

International Organizations:

Member of the I.C.O. - "Robusta" group
Member of the A.C.P. 1EEC. Lome Agreement. Cultivated Area : 400,000 hectares.

Importance of Coffee:

95 to 98 % of exports.

Harvested Area:

370.000 hectares

Regions of Production:

Washed Arabica :

Bugisu:

around Mount Elgon (Northeast) along the Kenyan border

 

Washed Arabica :

Elgon:

around Mount Elgon (Northeast) along the Kenyan border: the best coffees.

Washed Arabica :

Wugar:

in the Eastern mountainous regions.

Dry Arabica :

Drugar:

in the eastern mountainous regions.

Robustas:

in a 300 km radius around Lake Victoria.

Altitude:

Robusta:

1.200/1.500 meters.

Arabica:

1.300/2.300 meters.

Flowering:

Practically year round depending on the altitude.

Maturity:

Robusta:

two harvests per year, one major and one lesser.

Harvest:

Robusta:

practically year round, peak from November to February.    

 

Arabica:

from September/December.

First Shipment :

Arabica:

January/February

Period of Exportation:

Robusta

spread throughout the year.

Preparation :

Robusta:

Dry method

Arabica:

Bugisu und Region Elgon:

fully washed

Wugar:

Washed and cleened

Drugar:

unwashed (natural)

Robusta
Dry method

Screen 18:

Minimum 90 % over screen 18
Maximum 5 % (count
) defective beans

free of b
lack beans or cherries,
free of foreign odors or matter,

Standard:
Sieb 15:

Minimum 90% over screen 15
Maximum 10 % (count) defective beans
Maximum 1 % schwarze Bohne oder Kirschen

free of foreign odors or matter,

F.A.Q.:

unscreened (between screens 12 and 18),
(practically unused since grading has been started up again).

B.H.P.:

1199

sorting left-overs
small fragments usable.

 

1013

the worst of the waste: husks, dust, skinsrisks setting the roasting equipment on fire.
If dust is removed, there is about a 20 % loss, with removes all interest in using this.

Arabica

Drugar:

Dry : free from all traces of mustiness.
Uganda : free of undesirable odors or taints.

Wugar:

Wet process: Washed : free of fermentation.

Bugisu:

AA

Screen 19 to 17 free from Stinkern

 A

Screen 17 to 15 free from Stinkern

 B

max 10 % over screen 16, max 2 % under screen 12

 C

max 10 % over screen 15, max 5 % under screen 12

PB

max 5 % over screen 16, max 2 %  under screen 2 (Perlbean)

E

max 85 % over screen 19.5, max 5 % under screen 12 (Elefantbean)

UG

(unsorted

F

(Triage)

Region Elgon:

AA u. AA

by Hand sorted

A u. A

by Hand sorted

AB

 

PB

Perlbean

Moisture Content:

Maximum 13 %.

Caffeine Content:

Robusta:

2,30 %

Arabica:

1,27 %

Weight of Bags:

60 kg

Tare:

About 1 kg.

Packing:

Jute

Production:

3,5 million bags, 85% Robusta Coffee

Quantity purchased from the growers, but total production is estimated at 4 to 4.5 million bags. The difference between the figures are the quantities smuggled out to Zaire.

Local Consumption:

55,000 bags.
Encouraged by the C.M.B., however, it remains low since Ugandans are traditional tea drinkers.

Exportation :

3.5 million bags.

Exporters :

A state organization, the Coffee Marketing Board, had the monopoly up until November 1990.
The government decided to terminate the C.M.B.'s export monopoly in order to

- maximise production,
- improve quality,
- reduce costs.

Local shippers and other private interests will be able to participate as shareholders
in the restructured C.M.B.
When you buy a coffee from these regions, you are supporting the cash crop that brings
in foreign currency, and (while there are always a few coyotes among the middleman
and transporters/exporters) the most basic need small farmers have is to have a market
for their crops!

The C.M.B. has two offices for promoting its sales - London for Europe,
- New York for the United States and Canada.
Four cooperatives which group together thousands of small growers have obtained their
export licenses:

- Bugisu Coop. Union Ltd,
- Banyankole Coop. Union Ltd,
- Masaka Coop. Union Ltd,
- Busoga Coop. Union Ltd.

They are grouped together in the framework of the Union Export Services (U.N.EX.)
which arranges tenders every 15 days.
U.N.EX. is a joint state and private firm created under the aegis of the World Bank.
Sales objective :

15,000 tons in 1990/1991.
25,000 tons in 1991/1992.

The total capacity of its processing plants is 60,000 tons.

Ports of Exportation:

Mombasa (Kenya)

mainly by rail or roadway: 80 %. Dar Es Salam (Tanzania)

via Lake Victoria: to avoid exclusive dependence upon Kenya abt. 20 %.

Regulatory Agency:

The C. M. B. buys : the Arabica parchment from the farmers, processes it and sells it, the Robusta cherries (Kiboko).

The C.M.B.'s responsibilities are : to promote research, to improve quality,
to maintain relations with the other African coffeeproducing countries.

Research Organizations:

Robusta : station in Mukuno.
Arabica : stations in Mbale and Kawanda.

Special Problems:

Transportation:

Uganda has no direct access to the sea. Its exports rely on good relations with its neighbors and they often face a type of bottleneck depending on the condition of the relations.

Cultivation:

Arabica is attacked by : C.B.D. (Coffee Berry Disease), coffee rust.
Robusta is attacked by coffee cherry borer.

Smuggling:

Part of the production escapes all controls and this distorts
statistics. This portion is disposed of by smuggling as a result
of the big difference in the price paid by the C.M.B. and the
uncontrolled prices in neighboring Kenya.

Lack of qualified labor

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